KANKER LIMFOMIA (KELENJAR GETAH BENING)

LIMFOMA

Limfoma non hodgkin

A. Apa itu kanker Limfoma

Kanker limfoma atau kanker kelenjar getah bening adalah penyakit kanker dari sistem limfatik (kelenjar getah bening, kelenjar timus, limpa dan sumsum tulang). American Cancer Society mengatakan ada dua jenis limfoma, yaitu limfoma Hodgkin (penyakit Hodgkin) dan limfoma non-Hodgkin.

Limfoma non-Hodgkin dimulai di sistem limfatik di mana tumor berkembang dari suatu jenis sel darah putih yang disebut limfosit (baik sel-T atau sel-B). Limfoma non-Hodgkin jauh lebih umum bahwa penyakit Hodgkin. Sedangkan limfoma Hodgkin merupakan kanker dari sistem kekebalan tubuh yang ditandai dengan kehadiran jenis sel yang disebut sel Reed-Sternberg (sel raksasa biasanya berasal dari limfosit B).

B. Penyebab

Para ilmuwan tidak tahu persis apa yang menyebabkan limfoma, tetapi telah mengidentifikasi beberapa faktor risiko potensial, yaitu genetika (yang diwariskan anggota keluarga) dan karsinogen seperti sering terpapar pestisida tertentu, herbisida dan pelarut seperti benzena, beberapa pewarna rambut dan radikal bebas.

C. Gejala

Beberapa gejala penderita limfoma Hodgkin dan non-Hodgkin mengalami :

  1. Pembengkakan Kelenjar Getah Bening.
  2. Penurunan Berat Badan.
  3. Sakit Perut Atau Bengkak.
  4. Keringat Malam
  5. Demam
  6. Kelelahan Kronis

Beberapa individu juga mengalami nyeri dada, kesulitan bernapas, kulit sangat gatal, kurang nafsu makan.

D. Diagnosis

Menanyakan gejala-gejala yang dialami pasien merupakan langkah awal diagnosis pada semua penyakit, termasuk limfoma. Riwayat kesehatan Anda dan pemeriksaan fisik juga akan Anda jalani.

Jika menduga Anda mengidap limfoma, dokter akan menganjurkan beberapa pemeriksaan atau tes untuk memastikan diagnosis. Langkah pemeriksaan tersebut meliputi:

  1. Tes darah dan urine.

Melalui langkah ini, dokter akan mengetahui kondisi kesehatan Anda secara keseluruhan.

  1. X-ray, CT, MRI, dan PET scan.

Pemeriksaan ini digunakan untuk melihat tingkat penyebaran limfoma.

  1. Biopsi

untuk mengambil sampel kelenjar getah bening yang membengkak serta sumsum tulang.

E. Stadium Limfoma

Berikut ini adalah penjelasan singkat untuk stadium-stadium dalam limfoma.

  1. Stadium 1 – kanker menyerang salah satu kelompok noda limfa.
  2. Stadium 2 – kanker menyerang dua kelompok noda limfa atau menyebar ke satu organ di sekitar noda limfa, tapi hanya terbatas pada tubuh bagian atas atau bawah saja.
  3. Stadium 3 – kanker menyebar ke kelompok noda limfa pada bagian atas dan bawah diafragma.
  4. Stadium 4 – kanker sudah menyebar melalui sistem limfatik dan masuk ke organ atau sumsum tulang.

F. Pengobatan

Jika limfoma tampaknya akan tumbuh lambat, dokter mungkin menyarankan pendekatan menunggu dan melihat perkembangan sebelum memutuskan rencana pengobatan. Dalam kasus ini terapi kanker terkadang dapat ditunda minimal satu tahun. Dalam kebanyakan kasus limfoma Hodgkin dan non-Hodgkins, pilihan pengobatan adalah

  1. Kemoterapi,
  2. Radiasi
  3. Beberapa kasus membutuhkan transplantasi sel induk

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